Chapter 01: KVL and KCL

Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws allow us to solve complex circuit problems by defining a set of basic network laws and theorems.


A single equivalent resistance (RT) can be found when two or more resistors are connected together in either series, parallel or combinations of both, and that these circuits obey Ohm’s Law.

However, sometimes in complex circuits such as bridge or T networks, we can not simply use Ohm’s Law alone to find the voltages or currents circulating within the circuit. For these types of calculations, we need certain rules which allow us to obtain the circuit equations and for this we can use Kirchhoffs Circuit Law.

In 1845, a German physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff developed a pair or set of rules or laws which deal with the conservation of current and energy within electrical circuits. These two rules are commonly known as: Kirchhoffs Circuit Laws with one of Kirchhoffs laws dealing with the current flowing around a closed circuit, Kirchhoffs Current Law, (KCL) while the other law deals with the voltage sources present in a closed circuit, Kirchhoffs Voltage Law, (KVL).


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